ICCS 2016 Fact Sheet

Long title
International Civic and Citizenship Education Study
Frequency of data collection
Previous cycles
  • 2013–2014: framework revision and instrument development
  • 2014 (October–November): field trial
  • 2015 (October–December): main data collection, Southern Hemisphere
  • 2016 (March–April): main data collection, Northern Hemisphere
  • 2017 (November): release of international and European regional reports
  • 2018 (1st quarter): release of international database, Latin American regional report, and technical report
  • The study investigated the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their role as adult citizens in a range of countries in the second decade of the 21st century.
  • It addresses both the enduring and emerging challenges of educating young people in a world where contexts of democracy and civic participation continue to change.
  • These include the increase in the use of social media by young people as a tool for civic engagement, growing concerns about global threats and sustainable development, and growing recognition of the role of schools in fostering peaceful ways of interaction among young people.
Research questions
  • How is civic and citizenship education implemented in participating countries?
  • What is the extent and variation of students’ civic knowledge within and across participating countries?
  • What is the extent of students’ engagement in different spheres of society and which factors within or across countries are related to it?
  • What beliefs do students in participating countries hold regarding important civic issues in modern society and what are the factors influencing their variation?
  • How are schools in the participating countries organized with regard to civic and citizenship education and what is its association with students’ learning outcomes?
Assessment domain(s)
  • Civic education
Study framework (summary)

The civic and citizenship framework

Content domains

  • Civic society and systems
  • Civic principles
  • Civic participation
  • Civic identities

Affective-behavioral domains

  • Attitudes
  • Engagement

Cognitive domains

  • Knowing
  • Reasoning and applying


Contexts for civic and citizenship education

The wider community

  • Educational system
  • Local community
  • School-community relationships

Schools and classrooms

  • School contexts and characteristics
  • Teacher background and perceptions of school and classrooms
  • Student perceptions of school and classrooms

Home and peer environments

Student characteristics

Participating entities


24 education systems



Belgium (Flemish), Bulgaria, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), Hong Kong SAR, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Russian Federation, Slovenia and Sweden

Target population and sample (summary)

Target population

  • Students enrolled in the eighth grade, provided that the average age of students in this grade was 13.5 years or above at the time of the assessment; in countries where the average age of students in Grade 8 was less than 13.5 years, Grade 9 was defined as the target population.
  • Teachers teaching regular classes at the target grade level



Approximately 95,000 students and 50,000 teachers from 3,600 schools in 24 countries.

Data collection techniques and instruments (summary)

Student test of civic knowledge



  • Student questionnaire
  • Teacher questionnaire
  • School questionnaire
  • National context survey (online questionnaire)
Study director(s)


Keizersgracht 311

1016 EE Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 20 625 3625

Fax: +31 20 420 7136

E-mail: secretariat@iea.nl

URL: http://www.iea.nl


ICCS 2016 International Study Center

ICCS International Study Centre at the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)

19 Prospect Hill Rd

Camberwell VIC 3124


Phone: +61 3 9277 5555

Fax: +61 3 9277 5500

E-mail: iccs@acer.edu.au


ICCS 2016 International Project Coordination Center

IEA Hamburg

Überseering 27, 22297

Hamburg, Germany

E-mail: iccs@iea-hamburg.de