ICCS 2016 Data

Data analysis

All statistics were computed using appropriate sampling weights.

Estimation of standard errors for significance testing were computed by means of:

  • Replication methods (jackknife repeated replication, JRR/JK2) to estimate sampling variance
  • Five plausible values for estimating measurement variance (for analyses using the civic knowledge scale)
Secondary analysis

For secondary analyses, data can be analyzed using the IEA IDB Analyzer, which takes into account the specific characteristics of the sampling and assessment design, implements the corresponding replication method, and makes appropriate use of the plausible values for the civic knowledge scale.

Types of data files

Overview of data files

  • Student questionnaire data (main file, two additional files for Latin American and European data)
  • Student civic knowledge test data
  • Teacher questionnaire data
  • School questionnaire data
  • Within-country scoring reliability data
  • National contexts questionnaire data


Two versions: public-use and restricted-use

The ICCS 2016 international database is available in two versions: a public-use file (PUF) and a restricted-use file (RUF).

  • The public-use version is available for immediate access from the IEA Study Data Repository. A number of variables have been removed or categorized in the public-use version in order to minimize the risk of disclosing confidential information or enabling re-identification.
  • The restricted-use file is an extended version for scientific use. Researchers requiring any of the removed variables should contact the IEA to obtain permission and access to the restricted-use version (see the IEA Study Data Repository).
Format(s) of data files
Item release policy

For informational purposes, some civic knowledge test items have been published. The remaining items are kept secure to allow re-use in future ICCS cycles. The use of any published test items for research purposes is subject to approval by the IEA; responses to all items in the assessment are available in the data files.