PIRLS 2016 Data
All statistics were computed using sampling weights.
All achievement data are presented as five plausible values. All required statistics should be calculated separately for each of the plausible values and the resulting statistics averaged to get the final result. This can be done efficiently using the IEA IDB Analyzer.
Standard errors for significance testing of achievement results should be computed using the:
- Jackknife repeated replication method (JK2 variant) to estimate sampling variance, and
- Differences between the five plausible values to estimate measurement variance.
- For secondary analyses, data can be analyzed with the IEA IDB Analyzer and the International Data Explorer. These tools take into account the characteristics of the sampling and assessment design and implement the jackknife replication method with the appropriate plausible values.
- General note: PIRLS data are designed for group-level reporting; students’ scale scores in the database are not intended to report performance of individual students or very small groups.
- Background questionnaires (school, teacher, student, and home)
- Curriculum questionnaires
- Achievement responses to assessment items (see below under item release policy)
- Scoring reliability
Responses to all items used in the assessment are included in the database. After each cycle, however, some of the items are made available for restricted use by the public. The remaining items are kept secure, thus ensuring the possibility of measuring trends over time. The item release policy is described in the Item Release Plan. Access to the restricted use items is subject to approval by the IEA Amsterdam. However, the response data for all items used in the assessment are publicly and freely available in the data files.