REDS Fact Sheet

Long title
Responses to Educational Disruption Survey
Frequency of data collection
  • 2020 (mid-July-mid-August): framework development
  • 2020 (September-October): instrument development
  • 2020 (December)-2021 (July): data collection
  • 2022 (January): release of international report
  • 2022 (January): release of international database
  • Investigate how teaching and learning were affected by the COVID-19 health crisis and how education stakeholders responded to the educational disruption across and within countries.
  • Provide a systemic, multi-perspective, and comparative picture of the situation at the secondary education level (Grade 8) in countries around the world.
  • Measure impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on school staff and students.
  • Provide policymakers and education leaders with current and robust data and information for evidence-based decision-making.
Research questions
  • Overarching research question: How were teaching and learning affected by the disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and how was this mitigated by the implemented measures, across and within countries?
  • Sub-questions
    • Within countries, what were the education system-level responses to the COVID-19 pandemic?
    • What were the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning, and how were these mitigated by measures at the school level?
    • What were the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on school staff and students, and how were these mitigated by measures within countries?
    • What did schools do to support students’ return to regular schooling, what were the persisting changes and their implications for schooling in the future?
Assessment domain(s)

No Assessment

Study framework (summary)

Survey framework

  • Manifestations of the reference period* within countries
    • At the national level
    • At the school level
  • Impact of the pandemic on classroom teaching and learning
    • At the national level
    • At the school level
    • At the teacher level
    • At the student level
  • Assessment of student learning and provision of feedback to students
    • At the national level
    • At the school level
    • At the teacher level
    • At the student level
  • Teacher professional support
    • At the national level
    • At the school level
    • At the teacher level
  • Home engagement/support
  • Well-being
    • At the national level
    • At the school level
    • At the teacher level
    • At the student level
  • Persisting changes following the disruption
    • At the school level
    • At the teacher level
    • At the student level


Contextual or background framework

  • School (and principal’s) background
  • Teacher background
  • Student background


* Reference period of the COVID-19 disruption: The first period of time in a country after the beginning of the pandemic, during which most schools were closed for the majority of students, and teaching and learning took place mostly outside of school buildings.

Participating entities


11 countries



Burkina Faso, Denmark, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, the Russian Federation, Rwanda, Slovenia, the United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, and Uzbekistan

Target population and sample (summary)

Target population

Students: All students enrolled in the grade that represents eight years of schooling, counting from the first year of ISCED level 1

Teachers: All teachers who had taught students of the target population during the reference period and were still teaching at the same schools during survey administration

Schools: Those schools where students of the above-described target population could be found



Per country (intended): At least 150 schools as well as 20 students and 20 teachers per school

Across all countries (achieved): More than 21,000 students, 15,000 teachers and 1,500 principals (Note: Not all target groups were surveyed in each country.)

Data collection techniques and instruments (summary)
  • National questionnaire
    • Completed under the oversight of the national center


  • School questionnaire
    • Completed by or under the oversight of the school principal
    • Implemented by all countries


  • Teacher questionnaire
    • Completed by teachers
    • Teachers were asked to focus their answers on a target class, i.e., the subject that they taught most in the target grade during the COVID-19 disruption.
    • Rwanda did not implement this questionnaire.


  • Student questionnaire
    • Completed by students in the target grade
    • India, Rwanda, and Uruguay did not implement this questionnaire.
    • In most countries, the academic year changed between the reference period and the survey administration period. Hence, grade 8 students reflected on a situation they experienced in their seventh grade, whenever questions referred to the reference period. In Kenya, the academic year had been extended as a reaction to the interruptions caused by COVID-19. Therefore, students in grade 7 during survey administration had already been in grade 7 during the reference period.


These questionnaires were implemented via the internet, using the IEA Online Survey System (IEA OSS) software or, in the case of the National Questionnaire, through emailed Word documents. Paper versions of the questionnaires were also provided if requested by countries.

Study director(s)

IEA Amsterdam

Keizersgracht 311

1016 EE Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 20 625 3625

Fax: +31 20 420 7136




United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Education Sector

7, place de Fontenoy

75352 Paris 07 SP