REDS Framework

Assessment or survey framework

Manifestations of the reference period within countries

Definition of the reference period of the COVID-19 disruption: The first period of time in a country after the beginning of the pandemic, during which most schools were closed for the majority of students, and teaching and learning took place mostly outside of school buildings.

Topics included the following:

  •  At the national level
    • Key dates
    • School closures (including partial closures)
    • Variations in the application of requirements to schools across the country
    • General expectations of schools regarding remote teaching and learning
    • Ongoing consequences for schooling in the country
    • Aspects of practices introduced during the disruption that might inform future practices in regular schooling
    • National centers were asked to report on the following topics “in general” and more specifically “during the COVID-19 disruption”.
      • Distribution of responsibility for establishing guidelines for teaching and learning
      • Degree of autonomy of schools regarding teaching and learning at the target grade
  • At the school level
    • Organizational changes during the COVID-19 disruption
    • Individual school arrangements during the period of disruption


Impacts of the pandemic on classroom teaching and learning

The study did not make any assumptions about the nature of classrooms beyond those imposed by the definition of the period of disruption, i.e., that teaching and learning mostly took place outside of the school building for most students. Hence, the topics related to this theme addressed classroom teaching and learning associated with a range of delivery modes, including information and communications technology-based (ICT) and non-ICT.

Topics included the following:

  • At the national level
    • Resources provided to schools and students before and during the disruption
    • Policy expectations or requirements relating to the use of resources
  • At the school level
    • Provision of digital infrastructure resources
    • Support for staff and students before and during the period of disruption
    • Changes in time allocations for teachers to complete aspects of their work
    • Additional support for students with special needs, and their teachers
  • At the teacher level
    • Practical aspects of teachers’ delivery of classes
    • Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the disruption on their classes
  • At the student level
    • Students’ experiences of “classroom” learning


Assessment of student learning and provision of feedback to students

Definition: The assessment of student learning referred to the capacity of teachers, schools, and systems to make judgements about where students are in their learning and to make use of that information.

Topics included the following:

  • At the national level
    • Policies and practices relating to mandated assessments across learning areas
    • Changes in these policies and practices associated with the disruption
  • At the school level
    • Schools’ expectations of teachers to assess student learning outcomes
    • Changes in the nature or emphasis of assessment during the period of disruption
    • Expectations of teachers to provide feedback to students
  • At the teacher level, both during and before the disruption
    • Student assessment
    • Providing feedback to students
  • At the student level – students’ experiences during the period of disruption of
    • Completing schoolwork
    • Receiving feedback from teachers


Teacher professional support

This theme addressed the nature of professional support needed by and made available to teachers to help them adapt to the new ways of working.

Topics included the following:

  • At the national level
    • Direction or guidance on teaching and learning practices during the disruption provided to schools and teachers
    • Policies or plans developed (or in place) regarding professional development associated with teachers’ use of ICT in their teaching
  • At the school level
    • Changes in teachers’ access to and use of relevant professional support resources and opportunities (e.g., remote teaching pedagogy)
    • Degree to which the school felt supported by external people or organizations
  • At the teacher level – teachers’
    • Experiences of engaging in professional learning activities before and during the disruption
    • Perceptions of changes associated with the disruption in time they spent collaborating with their peers


Home engagement/support

This theme was associated with the nature and level of engagement and support for students’ learning available to them at home.

Topics included the following:

  • At the national level
    • The provision of support or resources that could be used by students and their families at home to assist students working remotely
  • At the school level
    • Schools’ means and frequency of communication with students and their families
    • Provision of information and support to families across a range of educational and health-related topics (both before and during the period of disruption)
    • Changes in schools’ provision of support services to families during the period of disruption
  • At the teacher level – teachers’
    • Provision of support or information to students and their families about topics associated with schooling, well-being, and other support services
    • Perceptions of changes in the methods they used to communicate with their students’ families during the disruption in comparison to before the disruption
  • At the student level
    • Actions of people in students’ homes that could influence students’ capacity to manage their schoolwork



This theme addressed the factors associated with individual well-being and what was being done within schools and school systems to support the well-being of school staff, students, and their families.

Topics included the following:

  • At the national level
    • Centralized policy and resource support measures associated with well-being
  • At the school level
    • Schools’ plans and provisions of resources to support student and staff well-being
  • At the teacher level
    • Impact of changed working conditions for teachers on their well-being
  • At the student level – students’
    • Access to support resources
    • Perceptions of the impact of the COVID-19 disruption on aspects of their personal well-being


Persisting changes following the disruption

This theme covered the potential impact of the experience of the disruption on future schooling.

Topics included the following:

  • At the school level – principals’ 
    • Perceptions of the level of preparedness for the school to engage in remote teaching in the future
    • Beliefs about the impact of the disruption on student learning outcomes
    • Actions undertaken by schools to prepare for future disruptions
    • Changes
      • To school policies and procedures in response to the disruption
      • In school priorities regarding teaching, learning, assessment, and well-being resulting from the disruption
      • Of provisions to teaching and learning programs and well-being support offered to students following the disruption to support the transition back to regular schooling
  • At the teacher level – teachers’
    • Actions to support students’ transition back to regular classes
    • Perceptions of the impact of the disruption on students’ learning progress and students’ capacity to study
    • Beliefs about the importance of a range of approaches for their teaching in the future
  • At the student level – students’
    • Perceptions of schooling following the period of disruption
    • Perceptions of their learning skills following the disruption
    • Feelings of preparedness to engage in learning in a similar future disruption
Contextual or background framework

School (and principal’s) background

  • Principals’ age and gender
  • School
    • Size and class sizes
    • Management and funding structure
    • Demographic profile  


Teacher background

  • Age and gender
  • Subjects taught
  • Years of experience teaching
  • Level of seniority in their school


Student background

  • Age and gender
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Language spoken at home
  • Home resources for learning, specifically the number of ICT devices used in their home
  • Household composition and the availability of support and potential distractions 
  • Experiences of using ICT for school and schoolwork before and during the period of disruption