PISA 2012 Data

Data analysis

All statistics were computed using sampling weights; standard errors based on balanced repeated replication weights were used for statistical significance and/or confidence intervals.

Analyses derived from achievement test results (plausible values) were based on Rubin’s rule for multiply imputed variables.

The OECD average corresponded to the arithmetic mean of the respective country estimates.


Secondary analysis

The PISA data analysis manual provides SAS and SPSS add-ons for analyzing PISA microdata.

User-written software is also available in Stata (repest, pisatools) and R (intsvy).

Basic statistics can be computed with the PISA Data Explorer.

Types of data files
  • Student questionnaire data file
  • School questionnaire data file
  • Parent questionnaire data file
  • Cognitive item response data file
  • Scored cognitive response data file
Format(s) of data files
Item release policy

Most items are kept confidential for re-use in future cycles in order to measure trends. A minority of items are released after each cycle to illustrate new frameworks and provide samples of tasks at different levels of proficiency