Determinants of country differences in effects of parental education on children’s academic achievement
In a previous study, the total, direct and indirect effects of parental education on reading, mathematics and science achievement have been estimated for Grade 4 pupils of 37 countries that participated in PIRLS and TIMSS 2011 studies (Gustafsson et al. in TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade—implications for early learning. pp 183–289, 2013). Several theories proposed to account for the variation were reviewed. With this previous study as the point of departure, the current study was to identify determinants and mechanisms that can explain the substantial variation found in the relationship between parental education and school achievement across the 37 countries in the previous study.