Conceptualizing and measuring computer and information literacy in cross-national contexts
The development of information technologies has transformed the environment in which young people access, create, and share information. Many countries, having recognized the imperative of digital technology, acknowledge the need to educate young people in the use of these technologies so as to underpin economic and social benefits. This article describes the International Computer and Information Literacy Study, which was conducted under the aegis of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement in 20 education systems during 2013. It outlines the assessment framework on which the study is based, articulates the basis for developing a measure of Computer and Information Literacy. The article also provides an insight into the nature and properties of the scale based on data from more than 60,000 Grade 8 students who responded to the 83 test items. The scale is described in terms of four achievement levels that are elaborated through examples.