ICCS 2016 Framework

Assessment or survey framework

The ICCS 2016 Civic and Citizenship Framework was organized around three domains:

Content domains – Described areas of civics and citizenship about which individuals may have developed knowledge and understanding, and towards which they may also have developed perceptions and dispositions.

  • Civic society and systems
    • Explanation: Focused on the formal and informal mechanisms and organizations that underpin both:
      • The civic contracts that citizens have with their societies
      • The functioning of the societies themselves
    • Sub-domains:
      • Citizens
      • State institutions
      • Civil institutions
  • Civic principles
    • Explanation:
      • Focused on the shared ethical foundations of civic societies
      • Support, protection, and promotion of these principles were regarded as:
        • Civic responsibilities
        • Frequently occurring motivations for civic participation by individuals and groups
    • Sub-domains:
      • Equity
      • Freedom
      • Sense of community
      • Rule of law
  • Civic participation
    • Explanation:
      • Referred to the manifestations of individuals’ actions in their communities
      • Ranged from awareness through engagement to influence
    • Sub-domains:
      • Decision-making
      • Influencing
      • Community participation
  • Civic identities
    • Explanation:
      • Included the individual’s civic roles and perceptions of these roles
      • The framework asserted and assumed that individuals have multiple articulated identities rather than a single-faceted civic identity
    • Sub-domains:
      • Civic self-image
      • Civic connectedness

 

Affective-behavioral domains – Described the attitudes that students develop and their disposition to participate in the civic life of their societies

  • Attitudes
    • Explanation: Judgments or evaluations regarding ideas, persons, objects, events, situations, and/or relationships
    • Types of attitudes:
      • Students’ attitudes toward civic society and systems
      • Students’ attitudes toward civic principles
      • Students’ attitudes toward civic participation
      • Students’ attitudes toward civic identities
  • Engagement
    • Explanation: Students’ civic engagement, students’ expectations of future action, and their dispositions to actively engage in society (interest, sense of efficacy)
    • Indicators of engagement were conceptualized according to the following typology:
      • Dispositions:
        • Students' interest in political and social issues
        • Students' sense of citizenship self-efficacy
      • Behavioral intentions:
        • Expectations to participate in legal and illegal forms of civic action in support of or protest against important issues
        • Expectations of political participation as adults
        • Expectations of participating in future school-based activities
      • Civic participation:
        • Students' engagement with social media
        • Students' engagement in organizations and groups (outside of school)
        • Students' engagement in school activities

 

Cognitive domains – Measured students’ knowledge about civics and citizenship

  • Knowing
    • Explanation: Referred to the learned civic and citizenship information that students use when engaging in the more complex cognitive tasks that help them make sense of their civic worlds
    • Encompassed:
      • Recalling or recognizing definitions, descriptions, and the key properties of civic and citizenship concepts and content
      • Illustrating these with examples
  • Reasoning and applying
    • Explanation: Referred to the ways in which students use civic and citizenship information to reach conclusions that are broader than the contents of any single concept and to make use of these in real-world contexts
    • Encompassed, for example:
      • The use of knowledge to reach conclusions about familiar concrete situations
      • The selection and assimilation of knowledge and understanding of multiple concepts
      • The evaluation of proposed and enacted courses of action
      • Providing recommendations for solutions or courses of action 
Contextual or background framework

The contextual framework distinguished the following levels:

The wider community

  • The educational system
    • The structure of the education system
    • Education policies regarding civic and citizenship education
    • Civic and citizenship education and school curriculum approaches
    • Teachers and civic and citizenship education
    • Assessment and quality assurance in civic and citizenship education
  • Local community and school-community relationships
    • Urbanization
    • Availability of resources in the local community
    • Issues of social tension in the community
    • Students’ participation in civic-related activities in the local community

 

Schools and classrooms

  • School contexts and characteristics
    • Principals' perceptions of the engagement of the school community
    • Principals' perceptions of teacher participation in school governance
    • Principals’ perceptions of bullying at school
    • Principals' reports on activities to prevent bullying
    • Principals’ reports on activities related to environmental sustainability
    • Principals' reports of students' access to ICT and to internet for their learning activities
    • Principals' reports on the delivery of civic and citizenship education at school
    • Principals' reports on school autonomy for the delivery of civic and citizenship education
    • Principals' report on school characteristics
    • Principals' perceptions of students' backgrounds
  • Teacher background and perceptions of school and classrooms
    • Teachers' reports on their background characteristics
    • Teachers’ participation in school governance
    • Teachers’ perceptions of bullying at school
    • Teachers’ perceptions of school climate
    • Teachers’ perceptions of classroom climate
    • Teachers' perceptions of activities related to environmental sustainability
    • Teachers' perceptions of the delivery of civic and citizenship education at school
    • Teachers' perceptions of ICT use for teaching and learning
    • Teachers' perceptions of their teaching of subjects related to civic and citizenship education
  • Student perceptions of school and classrooms
    • Classroom climate for civic and citizenship education at school
    • Students’ reports on learning experiences regarding civic issues
    • Students' perceptions of opportunities to learn about civic issues related to Europe
    • Students’ perceptions of school climate
    • Students’ reports on personal experiences of bullying and abuse

 

Home and peer environment

  • Students' parental socioeconomic background
  • Students' cultural/ethnic background
  • Students' parental interest
  • Students' reports of family composition
  • Students' discussion of political and social issues with parents and peers
  • Students' use of media for information on political and social issues
  • Students' participation in religious services

 

Student characteristics

  • Students' age
  • Students' sex (male, female)
  • Students' expected educational attainment